On July 8, 2009, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN) announced the availability of an article entitled Nanotechnology and In situ Remediation: A review of the benefits and potential risks, which discusses the use of nanomaterials in the environmental cleanup process. According to the article, nanomaterials have the potential to reduce the costs and time of cleaning up contaminated sites, as well as eliminate the need for treatment and removal of contaminated soil in the cleanup process. The article cautions that full evaluation of the possible cleanup techniques should be undertaken to mitigate all potential adverse environmental effects. EHP-in-Press articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in Environmental Health Perspectives.