NNI Publishes Report on RSL Initiatives in Nanotechnology

On May 17, 2013, the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) published a report on regional, state, and local (RSL) initiatives in nanotechnology. The report is the result of a workshop, convened May 1-2, 2012, and sponsored by the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council and the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute. The goal of the workshop was to improve the outcomes of nanotechnology research, education, and business activities undertaken to advance nanotechnology. The report states that the strategy for achieving this goal is “to exploit synergies between the various initiatives, promote sharing of information and resources, and develop ongoing mechanisms for relevant interactions.” The report is not intended to be a consensus document. It states that one theme rose to the top, however: “The continuing global economic downturn after 2008 and the demise of many previously sold RSL initiatives since the third NNI RSL workshop in 2009 gave a strong sense of urgency to the participants’ requests for more Federal attention to and matching financial support of the various regional, state, and local initiatives in nanotechnology.” The report includes recommendations in the following categories: commercialization; collaboration; policy; workforce; support for RSL initiatives; and RSL roadmapping. It also includes a “’Next Steps’ category to capture activities that can be begun immediately to keep interested parties in touch with one another.”

CalNIN Sponsoring Workshop on Challenges and Opportunities for Businesses Engaged in Nanotechnology

The B&C Consortia Management, L.L.C. (BCMM) is pleased to announce that the UCLA Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology will be hosting a workshop that will be sponsored by The California Nanotechnology Industry Network (CalNIN) on Challenges and Opportunities for Businesses Engaged in Nanotechnology on September 25, 2012.

Planned topics include:

  • Nanotechnology industry in California;
     
  • Regulatory initiatives;
     
  • Concerns with nanomaterials in the environment;
     
  • Programs, resources, and research opportunities;
     
  • Federal programs; and
     
  • Educational needs and opportunities.

For more information, log onto www.calnin.org or contact Jake Vandevort.

Registration opens on May 15, 2012.

Stay tuned for additional details on the workshop!

Wisconsin Bill Would Create Nanotechnology Information Hub and Nanotechnology Council

S.B. 533, which was prepared for the Joint Legislative Council’s Special Committee on Nanotechnology, was introduced in the Wisconsin Senate on February 29, 2012, by the Joint Legislative Council.  The bill directs the University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents to maintain a nanotechnology information hub, for at least five years, to promote the development of nanotechnology businesses in Wisconsin, and gather and disseminate information about environmental health and workplace safety related to nanotechnology. The hub is directed to report to the legislature on emerging nanotechnology health and safety information, and at the direction of the nanotechnology council, identify needed legislation relating to nanotechnology safety and development. The nanotechnology council, which would be created by the bill, would set policies and priorities for the nanotechnology information hub and make grants for research and development related to nanotechnology, subject to the availability of funding. The bill does not appropriate any funds for grants but rather directs the nanotechnology hub to seek and compete for federal, state, or other funding to support its activities and to be used by the nanotechnology council to make grants.

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Lynn L. Bergeson Will Participate in Webinar on the Greening of Consumer Products

Lynn L. Bergeson will participate in a February 7, 2012, Bloomberg BNA webinar entitled “The Greening of Consumer Products:  Legal, Regulatory, and Strategic Considerations.” Bloomberg BNA states that the webinar is intended to help users:

  • Identify the core concepts of green product development and the maturation of conventional environmental protection themes on which green product steward concepts rely;
  • Describe the diversity of legal and regulatory authorities, domestic and international, that are relevant to chemical, industrial, and consumer product manufacturers from a legal compliance perspective;
  • Analyze the role of private party standards and evolving concepts of product stewardship in product design and management;
  • Address the trends and emerging themes embedded in the commercial value chain that must be monitored to be competitive and successful;
  • Explore the challenges and value of green product marketing; and
  • Develop basic strategies for legal compliance and commercial success in green product marketing.

Nanotech Commercialization Conference Will Be Held in North Carolina in April

The NanoBusiness Commercialization Association, North Carolina Department of Commerce, and Center of Innovation for Nanobiotechnology will co-host the Nanotech Commercialization Conference on April 4-5, 2012, in Research Triangle, North Carolina. Lynn L. Bergeson will speak at the Conference, which will include:

  • National-level keynote speakers;
  • Sessions, workshops, and exhibits showcasing the latest advances in the field;
  • Discussions on financing, licensing, and business development geared toward the nanotech entrepreneur;
  • Sessions and exhibits showcasing cutting-edge research, products, and technologies; and
  • Networking opportunities with connected professionals.

 

OEHHA Posts Comments on Revised Proposed Regulation for Hazard Traits and Environmental and Toxicological Endpoints

The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has posted comments received on its July 29, 2011, revised proposed regulation concerning the specification of hazard traits, environmental and toxicological endpoints, and other relevant data that are to be included in California’s Toxics Information Clearinghouse.  The California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) will use information from the Clearinghouse to help identify chemicals of concern in consumer products as part of its Green Chemistry Program. OEHHA’s August 2010 pre-regulatory draft regulation included a “nanomaterial hazard trait,” as well as other references to nanoparticles, which OEHHA removed from its December 17, 2010, draft regulation. The revised regulation does not refer to nanomaterials or nanoparticles, but includes the following definition regarding particle size or fiber dimension:

(a)        The particle size or fiber dimension hazard trait is defined as the existence of a chemical substance in the form of small particles or fibers or the propensity to form into such small-sized particles or fibers with use or environmental release.

(b)        Evidence for the particle size or fiber dimension hazard trait includes, but is not limited to:  measures of particle size less than or equal to 10 micrometers in mass median aerodynamic diameter for inhalation exposure, or less than 10 micrometers in any dimension for dermal or ingestion exposure, or fibers with a 3:1 aspect ratio and a width less than or equal to 3 micrometers.

 

OEHHA Revises Proposed Regulation for Hazard Traits and Environmental and Toxicological Endpoints

The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) announced on July 29, 2011, that it revised its proposed regulation concerning the specification of hazard traits, environmental and toxicological end-points, and other relevant data that are to be included in California’s Toxics Information Clearinghouse.  The California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) will use information from the Clearinghouse to help identify chemicals of concern in consumer products as part of its Green Chemistry Program. Comments are due September 12, 2011.

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UCSF's Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment Publishes Recommendations for Addressing Health Risks from Nanomaterials in California

Last week, the University of California, San Francisco’s (UCSF) Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment announced the publication of its “Recommendations for Addressing Potential Health Risks from Nanomaterials in California,” which provides recommendations for addressing potential health risks from nanomaterials to the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) and to the state of California.  OEHHA contracted with UCSF to prepare the report, which provides an overview of nanotechnology materials, potential exposures, and human-health risks, and recommendations for addressing potential health hazards and risks from nanotechnology. Recommendations include those that can be implemented under the existing regulatory structure of OEHHA, such as establishing a publicly accessible clearinghouse and inventory of nanomaterial sources and products. The report also includes recommendations that are outside the scope of OEHHA, many of which may require legislative changes, such as requiring testing of release and exposure potential for nanomaterials in existing and new consumer products, and implementing a labeling system that requires labeling of products that contain nanomaterials.  According to UCSF, the recommendations primarily focus on requiring information on potential exposures and health hazards for nanomaterials used in the marketplace.

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NNI Announces Release of Regional, State, and Local Initiatives Workshop Report

The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) has announced the release of the report for its April 2009 regional, state, and local (RSL) initiatives. According to NNI, the goals of the workshop and the report are “to advance development of nanotechnology research, education, infrastructure, commercialization, and positive societal outcomes by exploiting synergies between the various regional, state, and local initiatives; by promoting the sharing of information and resources; and by developing mechanisms for cross-sector interactions.” With stakeholder input from government, academia, industry, and RSL initiatives across the country, the workshop report outlines mechanisms for information exchange and improved collaboration among all sectors engaged in nanotechnology.

BCCM Working with BASF to Create Consortium to Respond to CDTSC DCI

B&C Consortia Management, L.L.C. (BCCM) is working with BASF Corporation (BASF) to create a consortium to provide the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) information on analytical methods that could be used to measure certain nanoscale materials in air, surface water, and soil.  The collaborative project will involve adapting known methods used to measure these substances in other media to the analysis of environmental media.  The term of the consortium will be at least two years, which can be modified by mutual agreement. On December 21, 2010, CDTSC issued a data call-in (DCI) for information regarding analytical test methods, and other relevant information, from manufacturers of nano silver, nano zero valent iron, nano titanium dioxide, nano zinc oxide, nano cerium oxide, and quantum dots. Experts within BASF will address issues concerning titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. BASF and BCCM seek other companies and experts to offer similar expertise for the remaining nanomaterials of interest and provide CDTSC with the help it needs.

CDTSC Issues DCI for Nano Metals, Nano Metal Oxides, and Quantum Dots

On December 21, 2010, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) issued a data call-in (DCI) for information regarding analytical test methods, and other relevant information, from manufacturers of nano silver, nano zero valent iron, nano titanium dioxide, nano zinc oxide, nano cerium oxide, and quantum dots. According to CDTSC, Health and Safety Code Section 57018(a)(4) defines a “manufacturer” as a “person who produces a chemical in this state or imports a chemical into this state for sale in this state.”  Accordingly, CDTSC states, “persons and businesses who produce or import one or more of the above chemicals, in any quantity, must comply with the statute and this request.” CDTSC requests information about the analytical test methods that identify and quantify the specified nanomaterials, their metabolites, and their degradation products in water, air, soil, sediment, sludge, chemical waste, fish, blood, adipose tissue, and urine. CDTSC states it determined that little or no information on analytical test methods for these nanomaterials in the human body or the environment now exists.  To better understand the behavior, fate, and transport of these nanomaterials, CDTSC needs “appropriate analytical test methods” for manufacturers, contract and reference laboratories, and regulatory agencies.  CDTSC states that manufacturers “may be required to develop information consistent with the requirements of Health and Safety Code section 57019(c) and (d).” Manufacturers, including importers, must provide the requested information no later than one year from CDTSC’s December 21, 2010, letter, however, “timely attention and response is preferred.”

California Removes Nano References in the Revised Safer Consumer Product Alternatives Regulations

On November 16, 2010, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) released revisions to its safer consumer product alternatives regulations for a 15-day comment period. Of particular note, CDTSC has removed all references to nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the proposed regulations, which previously defined nanomaterials and included “physical, chemical, or quantum properties specific to nanomaterials” on the list of prioritization factors that CDTSC would consider in placing chemicals on the list of Chemicals Under Consideration. The revised proposed regulations also no longer exclude nanomaterials from the de minimis exemption. Under the Green Chemistry Program, the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) will specify the hazard traits, environmental and toxicological end-points, and other relevant data to include in the state’s Toxics Information Clearinghouse. CDTSC will use information from the clearinghouse to help identify chemicals of concern in consumer products. OEHHA’s pre-regulatory draft regulation includes reference to nanoparticles and defines a “nanomaterial hazard trait.” Comments on CDTSC’s revised proposed regulations are due December 3, 2010.

CDTSC and EPA Hold Public Workshop on State and Federal Nanomaterial Activities

On September 22, 2010, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held a public workshop on state and federal nanomaterial activities. During the workshop, CDTSC and EPA discussed the results of California’s data call-in (DCI) for carbon nanotubes (CNT), its plans for future DCIs, and EPA’s efforts related to CNTs. The candidate chemicals for CDTSC’s second DCI, which it intends to issue this Fall, include nanosilver, nano zero valent iron, nano titanium dioxide, nano zinc oxide, nano cerium oxide, and quantum dots. CDTSC may also include in the DCI a request for more information concerning CNTs incorporated in nanometals. According to CDTSC, the DCI will focus its initial questions on analytical test methods for the respective nanomaterial chemical, as well as its metabolites and breakdown products, in various matrices. The meeting presentations for each of the DCI candidates include more specific information regarding applications, production, human health and environmental concerns, why CDTSC is interested, and possible DCI questions.

 

CDTSC Reschedules Public Workshop on State and Federal Nanomaterial Activities

The California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) has rescheduled its workshop on state and federal nanomaterial activities for September 22, 2010. CDTSC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) are cosponsoring the workshop to discuss the results of California’s carbon nanotube (CNT) information call-in, future data call-in requests for additional nanomaterials, and federal efforts related to CNTs for nanomaterials. The workshop is open to the public.

OEHHA Releases Pre-Regulatory Draft Regulation for Hazard Traits and Environmental and Toxicological Endpoints

The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has released for comment a pre-regulatory draft regulation regarding the specification of hazard traits, environmental and toxicological end-points, and other relevant data that are to be included in California’s Toxics Information Clearinghouse. The California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) will use information from the Clearinghouse to help identify chemicals of concern in consumer products as part of its Green Chemistry Program.

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EPA And CDTSC Drafting MOU To Share Data

According to the California Department of Toxic Substances Control's (CDTSC) website, it is drafting a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate information exchange, collaboration, and outline a working partnership on emerging chemicals, green chemistry, and materials management. Under the new MOU, EPA and CDTSC will:

1.  Establish chemical specific teams for priority chemicals of mutual interest;

     a.  Teams will develop specific goals, points of coordination, and focus areas.

2.  Share information on analytical methods, fate and transport, bioconcentration, toxicity, exposure, risk assessment, and similar topics relative to emerging chemicals;

3.  Share literature reviews, databases;

4.  Collaborate on identifying and prioritizing information and data gaps;

5.  Keep each other informed on workshops, symposia, web events, etc.;

6.  Share value-chain information (to the extent allowed by law):

     a.  Producers, importers;

     b.  Production volumes; and

     c.  Applications/intermediates/products.

7.  Explore ways to exchange information while protecting CBI; and

8.  Collaborate on research needs and funding. 

CDTSC Postpones Public Workshop on State and Federal Nanomaterial Activities

Due to California’s budget issues and resulting furlough for civil service employees, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) has postponed its August 13, 2010, workshop on state and federal nanomaterial activities. CDTSC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) are cosponsoring the workshop to discuss the results of California’s carbon nanotube (CNT) information call-in, future data call-in requests for additional nanomaterials, and federal efforts related to CNTs for nanomaterials. CDTSC states that it will reschedule the workshop at a later date.

Massachusetts Releases Nanotechnology Guidance Document

The Massachusetts Office of Technical Assistance (MOTA) will post this week a Technology Guidance Document entitled “Nanotechnology -- Considerations for Safe Development,” which includes recommendations intended to enhance the safety of nanotechnology.  According to MOTA, it is providing the Guidance for “the express purpose of assisting in the development of this technology, as failure to prevent exposures or releases will not just risk harm to health or the environment -- it will also impede the common interest in realizing the benefits that nanotechnology can provide.”

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Final Nano Summit White Paper Released

We are pleased to announce the release of the final white paper from the October 8-9, 2009, summit entitled “Environmentally Responsible Development of Nanotechnology,” which was held by The Research Triangle Environmental Health Collaborative. The charge for summit attendees was to explore issues regarding potential risk across nano-enabled product lifecycles, with the goal of generating a set of recommendations for North Carolina businesses regarding how to address such risks. The White Paper, to which Lynn L. Bergeson contributed, summarizes near-term recommendations resulting from the summit, as well as questions that should be considered in the interim to arrive at more solid long-term recommendations.

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OEHHA Announces Draft Nanotechnology Policy Framework for California

On April 22, 2010, the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) announced that, on May 5, 2010, the University of California at San Francisco’s (UCSF) Program on Reproductive Health will hear comments from an expert panel and the public on a draft UCSF document entitled “A Nanotechnology Policy Framework: Policy Recommendations for Addressing Potential Health Risks from Nanomaterials in California.” The draft document includes a number of recommendations for OEHHA and other California policymakers about nanomaterials, including recommendations on assessing their risks. According to UCSF, following the meeting, it will prepare the document in final and present it to OEHHA “to better inform their risk assessment recommendations for decision makers and risk managers.” The draft document includes recommendations concerning characterizing nanomaterials for hazard identification and exposure potential; indentifying sources of nanomaterials; addressing exposure to nanomaterials; prioritizing and characterizing health effects; testing products for safety; and engaging and informing the public. The draft report recommends that, as a first step, “OEHHA should evaluate and ensure that nanomaterials are integrated into their programs and activities in parallel with conventional chemicals.” In addition, the draft report outlines recommendations intended to address nanomaterial concerns and identifies the OEHHA programs through which these recommendations can be implemented.

Wisconsin Legislature Considers Nanotechnology Registry

In a December 16, 2009, letter, three members of the Wisconsin Assembly requested that a Legislative Council study be conducted on the feasibility of creating a nanotechnology registry and the development of subsequent legislation to monitor the use, manufacture, and disposal of nanomaterials in Wisconsin. The letter, signed by State Representatives Terese Berceau (D), Chuck Benedict (D), and Penny Bernard Schaber (D), notes that entities manufacturing or using nanomaterials in Wisconsin are not required by state or federal regulation to identify materials they are using, how they transport and dispose of them, or where such work is taking place. According to the letter, data gaps present “serious concerns” to first responders and public agencies responsible for addressing health consequences or releases into air or water. The letter states: “The development of a registry in partnership with science, business, and the public sector -- and which enhances the economic development of our state -- is our ultimate goal.”

California DTSC Plans to Host Nano-Industry Symposium

 The California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) announced it will host the DTSC/California Nano-Industry Network Symposium, to be held November 16, 2009, in Sacramento, California. The Symposium, which is co-sponsored by the American Chemistry Council and Dupont, will use the DTSC’s nanotechnology data call-in as a backdrop. According to the preliminary agenda, the Symposium will feature two sessions. The first, entitled “Collaborative Efforts,” will discuss the key U.S. and international forums for collaboration on the health, safety, and environmental impacts of nanomaterials. The second session, “Company Engagement with Nanotechnology Safety,” will review examples of how companies can apply the evolving knowledge on nanomaterials safety to address systematically various areas of concern.

 

 

ECOS Wants to Participate in NSET Subcommittee Working Groups

In an August 7, 2009, letter to the White House Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP), the Environmental Council of the States (ECOS) expressed its interest in working with OSTP and other federal agencies regarding the “human health and ecological impacts and lifecycle consequences of intentional and unintentional releases of engineered nanoparticles into the environment.” According to ECOS, state environmental agencies want to participate in national efforts to develop best assessment and management practices. ECOS suggests that one option is for ECOS to join one or more of the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) Subcommittee Working Groups within the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) framework. ECOS asked OSTP for a meeting, “preferably this summer,” to obtain feedback on its key areas of interest and to discuss the best opportunities for its involvement in national efforts.

CDTSC Will Hold Nanotech III Symposium

On March 19, 2009, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) will hold a full-day nanotechnology symposium on nanomaterials regulation from a variety of perspectives. According to CDTSC, the symposium will focus on the regulatory aspects of nanotechnology, the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and CDTSC’s chemical information call-in program including nanoscale materials. CDTSC states that federal interest in nanomaterial regulation and California’s efforts “provide a great opportunity for fostering technological advances that recognize environmental and public health concerns. The goal is to create a partnership where we can enhance research where needed and promote sustainable processes as well as applications.” Registration is required. The symposium will also be available via web cast.

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CDTSC Issues Data Call-In for Carbon Nanotubes

In a January 22, 2009, letter, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) announced that it is requiring the submission of data “regarding analytical test methods, fate and transport in the environment, and other relevant information from manufacturers of carbon nanotubes” (CNT). CDTSC states that the term “manufacturers” includes persons and businesses that produce CNTs in California or import CNTs into California for sale.  According to the letter, CDTSC is using its authority under California Health and Safety Code, Chapter 699, Sections 57018-57020. Section 57019(d)(2) requires that the data requested be provided within one year of the date of the letter.

PEN Report Finds States Could Prompt Federal Action Regarding Nanotechnology

On April 9, 2008, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN) released a report entitled Room at the Bottom? Potential State and Local Strategies for Managing the Risks and Benefits of Nanotechnology. According to the report, because of the slow pace of federal action to regulate development of nanotechnology, “there is ‘room at the bottom’ for state and local governments to move forward in pursuing regulatory and other oversight options.” Research for the report identified a number of states with laws promoting the nanotechnology industry or other initiatives encouraging research and development on nanotechnology applications. The report states that each of the 50 states is “home to at least one company, university, government laboratory, or other type of organization working with nanomaterials.” Continue Reading...

CNSI Will Hold Legislative Summit on Nanotechnology

On April 25, 2008, the California Nanosystems Institute (CNSI) will hold a conference entitled “The Future of Nanotechnology: A Legislative Summit.” The conference sponsors include California Assembly Member Mike Feuer (AD 42-D), Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research (OVCR), State Government Relations (SGR), and CNSI. Panelists include Lenny Rome, Ph.D.; Andre Nel, Ph.D., MD; John Froines, Ph.D.; Hilary Godwin, Ph.D.; Tim Malloy, JD; and Jeffrey Wong. CNSI describes the conference as “the first step for stakeholders from industry, government, research institutes and environmental groups to discuss responsible ways to regulate nanotechnology without stifling progress.”

Wisconsin Representative Requests Assistance in Creating Registry

In a December 3, 2007, letter, to the Secretaries of Wisconsin’s Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Department of Health and Family Services (DHFS), and Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection (DATCP), Wisconsin State Representative Terese Berceau (D) asks for their assistance in creating a policy “to address potential environmental problems associated with the emerging field of nanotechnology.” Berceau refers to the ordinance adopted by Berkeley, California, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program (NMSP), and proposes a reporting system and creation of a registry in Wisconsin “including addressing areas that are simply not yet fully defined in an emerging and growing technological field.” Berceau states that whether the registry is created by rule or legislation “is best determined with the guidance of the regulatory agencies dealing with similar issues today -- in public health, environmental protection, and consumer protection.”

California Hosts Symposium on Potential Hazards of Nanoparticles in the Environment

On October 3, 2007, the California Department for Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) held a symposium on the potential hazards of nanoparticles in the environment. According to DTSC, exploring environmentally safe processes in nanotechnology manufacturing is a component of the California Green Chemistry Initiative.  Under the Initiative, a multi-agency state team is exploring a different approach to environmental protection -- transitioning away from managing toxic chemicals at the end of the life-cycle, to reducing or eliminating their use altogether.  DTSC states that this new approach is similar to measures adopted by the European Union (EU) and the Canadian government to encourage greater manufacturer responsibility. Continue Reading...

CDTSC Will Hold Symposium on Potential Hazards of Nanomaterials in the Environment

The California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) will hold a symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Symposium II:  Potential Hazards of Nanomaterials in the Environment” on October 3, 2007. The draft agenda includes the following topics: 

  • Chemical Properties and Commercial/Industrial Applications of Nanotechnology;
  • Physico-Chemical Characterization of Nanoparticles and Its Relation to Their Bio-Interactions;
  • Potential Ecotoxicity of Nanoparticles Released to the Environment;
  • Nanomaterial Human Health Risks and Risk Assessment; and
  • One Proactive Approach to Responsible Nanotechnology Development:  The DuPont -- Environmental Defense NanoRisk Framework.