Potassium Titanium Oxide SNUR Bans Manufacture of Particle Size Less Than 100 nm

On October 5, 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated a final significant new use rule (SNUR) for potassium titanium oxide, which was previously the subject of a consent order under Section 5(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). EPA states that, based on test data on the premanufacture notice (PMN) substance and structure activity relationship analysis of test data on analogous respirable, poorly soluble particulates (subcategory titanium dioxide), EPA “identified concerns for lung toxicity and fibrosis in workers exposed to the PMN substance by the inhalation route.” EPA issued the consent order based on a finding that the substance may present an unreasonable risk of injury to human health. The conditions required by the consent order include “[n]o manufacture of the PMN substance with a particle size less than 100 nanometers.” The final SNUR designates as a significant new use the absence of the protective measures required by the consent order. According to the SNUR, EPA determined that a 90-day inhalation toxicity test with special attention to histopathology of the lung tissues and to various parameters of the broncoalveolar lavage fluid would help characterize the human health effects of the PMN substance. The SNUR will be effective on December 4, 2012. Written adverse or critical comments, or notice of intent to submit adverse or critical comments, are due November 5, 2012.

EPA Promulgates SNUR for Infused Carbon Nanostructures

On April 4, 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated, through a direct final rule, significant new use rules (SNUR) for 17 chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN). This includes a SNUR for “infused carbon nanostructures (generic).” According to EPA, the PMN states that the generic (non-confidential) use of the substance is as an additive to provide conductive properties to reinforcements used in composites. EPA states that, based on available information on analogous chemical substances, the PMN substance may cause lung effects. For the use described in the PMN, however, no significant inhalation exposures are expected, and EPA “has not determined that the proposed manufacturing, processing, or use of the substance may present an unreasonable risk.” EPA notes that it has determined, however, that a manufacturing process other than as described in the PMN may cause serious health effects. Based on this information, EPA states the PMN substance meets the concern criteria at 40 C.F.R. Section 721.170(b)(3)(ii). EPA determined that the results of the following information would help characterize the health effects of the PMN substance: the dimensions, characteristics, and physical-chemical properties of the carbon nanostructures. Under the SNUR, these properties should be determined once a year for three consecutive years. The direct final rule is effective on June 4, 2012. Written adverse or critical comments, or notice of intent to submit adverse or critical comments, are due May 4, 2012.

EPA Extends Comment Period for Proposed SNURs

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced that, in response to public comments, it will provide the public more time to comment on the December 28, 2011, proposed significant new use rules (SNUR) for 17 chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN). Of particular interest, seven of the PMN substances’ reported chemical names include the term “carbon nanotube” (CNT) or “CNT.” EPA states “the comment period is being reopened until 45 days following publication of the new notice (until approximately mid-March).”  Importantly, the docket reveals that requests for extension were submitted by the International Center for Technology Assessment (ICTA), the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW), and the United Steelworkers Union (USW).  The USW comment specifically asserts that the “specific protection measures required for individual PMN substances indicate that personal protective equipment, including gloves and respirators, should be the first line of defense to protect workers.  These requirements do NOT follow occupational health and safety best practices” (emphasis in original). The comment then goes on to cite the ANSI/AIHA Z10 2005 standard and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards as best practices.

This is an important perspective in the ongoing worker protection debate and the requests for comment deadline extension suggest that the unions are likely to become more engaged in this discussion.

 

EPA Publishes Proposed SNURs for CNTs

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published on December 28, 2011, proposed significant new use rules (SNUR) for 17 chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN). Of particular interest, seven of the PMN substances’ reported chemical names include the term “carbon nanotube” (CNT) or “CNT.”  EPA states that because of a lack of established nomenclature for CNTs, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory names for CNTs are currently in generic form, e.g., “carbon nanotube (CNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT), or single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT).” EPA uses the specific structural characteristics provided by the PMN submitter to characterize more specifically the TSCA Inventory listing for an individual CNT. According to EPA, all submitters of new chemical notices for CNTs have claimed those specific structural characteristics as confidential business information (CBI). The proposed rule includes the generic chemical name along with the PMN number to identify that a distinct chemical substance was the subject of the PMN without revealing the confidential chemical identity of the PMN substance. Comments are due January 27, 2012.

EPA notes that, since confidentiality claims preclude a more detailed description of the identity of the CNTs, if an intended manufacturer, importer, or processor of CNTs is unsure of whether its CNTs are subject to the proposed SNURs, the company can either contact EPA or obtain a written determination from EPA pursuant to the bona fide procedures at 40 C.F.R. § 721.11. EPA states that it is using the specific structural characteristics, for all CNTs submitted as new chemical substances under TSCA, to help develop standard nomenclature for placing these chemical substances on the TSCA Inventory. EPA has compiled a generic list of those structural characteristics entitled “Material Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes for Molecular Identity (MI) Determination & Nomenclature.”

EPA Regulatory Agenda Includes Notices Concerning Nanoscale Materials

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) July 7, 2011, Regulatory Agenda includes several notices concerning nanoscale materials:

  • Test Rule for Certain Nanoscale Materials -- EPA states that it is developing a test rule under Section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers (defined by statute to include importers) and processors of the multiwall carbon nanotube described in Premanufacture Notice (PMN) P-08-199, certain clays (e.g., kaolin (including halloysite) and bentonite (including montmorillonite)), alumina, and spray-applied nanomaterials to conduct testing for health effects, ecological effects, and environmental fate, as well as provide material characterization data. EPA intends to issue a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in August 2011.
  • Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) -- EPA is developing a SNUR for nanoscale materials under TSCA Section 5(a)(2). The SNUR would require persons who intend to manufacture, import, or process this/these chemical substance(s) for an activity that is designated as a significant new use by this proposed rule to notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity. In addition, according to the notice, EPA is developing a proposal to require reporting and recordkeeping under TSCA Section 8(a), which would require that persons who manufacture these nanoscale materials notify EPA of certain information, including production volume, methods of manufacture and processing, exposure and release information, and available health and safety data. The notice regarding a TSCA Section 8(a) rulemaking was previously separate, but EPA states “those two efforts were combined into a single rulemaking.” EPA submitted a proposed rule regarding TSCA Section 8(a) reporting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review on November 22, 2010, where it remains. According to the notice, EPA intended to publish an NPRM in June 2011. Nothing has been published to date, however.

EPA Issues Final SNUR for Certain Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

On May 6, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated a final significant new use rule (SNUR) under Section 5(a)(2) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for the chemical substance identified generically as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), which was the subject of premanufacture notice (PMN) P-08-199. Under the final SNUR, persons intending to manufacture, import, or process MWCNT for a use that is designated as a significant new use by the final rule must notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity. EPA states that it believes the final rule is necessary “because the chemical substance may be hazardous to human health,” and the required notification would provide EPA with the opportunity to evaluate the intended use and, if necessary, to prohibit or limit that activity before it occurs. The final rule will be effective June 6, 2011.

EPA issued a proposed SNUR on February 3, 2010, and then on July 28, 2010, it reopened the comment period for 30 days to address public comment and add information to the docket. In the May 6, 2011, Federal Register notice, EPA states that, in response to comments on the basis for the proposed SNUR, EPA developed a revised summary document entitled “Summary of EPA’s Current Assessments of Health and Environmental Effects of Carbon Nanotubes,” which specifies EPA’s current hazard concerns as supported by available information and data. According to the May 6, 2011, notice, EPA considered comments on the proposed SNUR, and the final SNUR:

  • Retains the proposed workplace protection and specific use provisions as significant new uses;
  • Adds exclusions from applicability of the SNUR uses identified as ongoing; and
  • Identifies those forms of the subject PMN substance that are exempt from the provisions of the SNUR. These exemptions apply to quantities of the PMN substance:
    • After they have been completely reacted (cured);
    • Incorporated or embedded into a polymer matrix that itself has been reacted (cured); or
    • Embedded in a permanent solid polymer form that is not intended to undergo further processing except for mechanical processing.

EPA Regulatory Agenda Includes Several Notices Concerning Nanoscale Materials

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) December 20, 2010, Regulatory Agenda includes several notices concerning nanoscale materials:

  • Test Rule for Certain Nanoscale Materials -- EPA states that it is developing a test rule under Section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers (defined by statute to include importers) and processors of the multiwall carbon nanotube described in Premanufacture Notice (PMN) P-08-199, certain clays (e.g., kaolin (including halloysite) and bentonite (including montmorillonite)), alumina, and spray-applied nanomaterials to conduct testing for health effects, ecological effects, and environmental fate, as well as provide material characterization data. EPA intends to issue a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in April 2011.
  • Reporting Under TSCA Section 8(a) -- Under TSCA Section 8(a), EPA is developing a proposal to establish reporting requirements for certain nanoscale materials.  According to the notice, the rule would propose that persons who manufacture these nanoscale materials notify EPA of certain information including production volume, methods of manufacture and processing, exposure and release information, and available health and safety data. The notice states that EPA intends to issue an NPRM in February 2011. EPA submitted a proposed rule to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review on November 22, 2010.
  • Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) -- EPA is developing a SNUR for nanoscale materials under TSCA Section 5(a)(2).  The SNUR would require persons who intend to manufacture, import, or process this/these chemical substance(s) for an activity that is designated as a significant new use by this proposed rule to notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity. EPA intends to issue an NPRM in February 2011.

EPA Issues Final SNURs for Carbon Nanotubes

On September 17, 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued final significant new use rules (SNUR) for two chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN). The two chemical substances are identified generically as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (PMN P08177) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) (PMN P08328). Persons who intend to manufacture, import, or process either of these substances for a use that is designated as a significant new use by the final rule must notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity. EPA states that it believes the SNURs are necessary because these chemical substances may be hazardous to human health and the environment. The required notification would provide EPA with the opportunity to evaluate the intended use and, if necessary, to prohibit or limit that activity before it occurs. The final rule is effective October 18, 2010.

EPA issued direct final SNURs on these two substances on June 24, 2009. EPA withdrew the notices on August 21, 2009, after receiving notices of intent to submit adverse comments on the SNURs. EPA issued proposed SNURs on November 6, 2009. In response to comments on the applicability of the SNURs for these chemicals, EPA has included clarifying language for those forms of the subject PMN substances that are exempt from the provisions of the SNURs.  These exemptions apply to quantities of the PMN substances: after they have been completely reacted (cured); incorporated or embedded into a polymer matrix that itself has been reacted (cured); or embedded in a permanent solid polymer form that is not intended to undergo further processing except for mechanical processing. In response to comments on the basis for the SNURs, EPA developed revised human health effects and environmental effects summaries for carbon nanotubes (CNT).

EPA Proposes a Second SNUR for Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published on February 3, 2010, a proposed significant new use rule (SNUR) under Section 5(a)(2) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The proposed rule would require persons who intend to manufacture, import, or process the substance for an activity that is designated as a significant new use by the proposed rule to notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity. EPA states that the required notification would provide EPA with the opportunity to evaluate the intended use and, if necessary, to prohibit or limit that activity before it occurs. Comments are due March 5, 2010.

The proposed rule provides the following basis for action:

The PMN states that the substance will be used as an additive/filler for polymer composites and support media for industrial catalysts. Based on test data on analogous respirable, poorly soluble particulates and on other carbon nanotubes (CNTs), EPA identified concerns for lung effects, immunotoxicity, and mutagenicity from exposure to the PMN substance. For the uses described in the PMN, worker inhalation and dermal exposures are minimal due to the use of adequate personal protective equipment. Therefore, EPA has not determined that the proposed manufacturing, processing, or use of the substance may present an unreasonable risk. EPA has determined, however, that use of the substance without the use of gloves and protective clothing, where there is a potential for dermal exposure; use of the substance without a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved full-face respirator with an N100 cartridge, where there is a potential for inhalation exposure; or use other than as described in the PMN, may cause serious health effects. Based on this information, the PMN substance meets the concern criteria at 721.170(b)(3)(ii).

The proposed SNUR would apply only to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes described in premanufacture notice (PMN) P08-199. According to EPA, in the past, some stakeholders have asked whether these types of SNURs apply to all variants of carbon nanotubes. EPA states: “This is not the case.” The chemical name listed in the proposed SNUR is “multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic),” and the CAS Number is “not available.” On November 6, 2009, EPA published a proposed SNUR for the multi-walled carbon nanotubes described in PMN P08-177.

EPA Proposes SNURs for Carbon Nanotubes

On November 6, 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed significant new use rules (SNUR) under Section 5(a)(2) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for two chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN). EPA identified the substances generically as multi-walled carbon nanotubes and single-walled carbon nanotubes. According to the notice, these substances are subject to TSCA Section 5(e) consent orders issued by EPA. The consent orders require protective measures to limit exposures or otherwise mitigate the potential unreasonable risk. The proposed SNURs are based on and consistent with the provisions in the underlying consent orders, and designate as a significant new use the absence of the protective measures required in the corresponding consent orders. Persons who intend to manufacture, import, or process either of these two substances for an activity that is designated as a significant new use would be required by the proposed rule to notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity. The required notification would provide EPA with the opportunity to evaluate the intended use and, if necessary, to prohibit or limit that activity before it occurs. Comments are due December 7, 2009.

EPA Announces Receipt of CNT PMNs

In a January 5, 2009, Federal Register notice, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announces receipt of several premanufacture notices (PMN) concerning multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT). Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA requires any person who intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Inventory) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory provisions pertaining to the manufacture of new chemicals. According to the notice, EPA received the CNT PMNs on September 17, 2008, and the projected end date was December 15, 2008. The submitter name is claimed as confidential business information (CBI). Comments on the PMNs are due February 4, 2009.

The notice includes the following information:

Case No.

Use

Chemical

P-08-0733

(G) (1) A reinforcement for composites: Open, non-dispersive use; (2) A conductive additive for composites: Open, non-dispersive use; (3) A conductive additive for batteries: Contained use

(G) A multi-walled CNT

P-08-0734

(G) (1) A reinforcement for composites: Open, non-dispersive use; (2) A conductive additive for composites: Open, non-dispersive use; (3) A conductive additive for batteries: Contained use

(G) A multi-walled CNT

EPA Announces Receipt of Fullerene PMNs

In a December 12, 2008, Federal Register notice, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announces receipt of several premanufacture notices (PMN) from Nano-C, Inc. concerning fullerenes. Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA requires any person who intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Inventory) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory provisions pertaining to the manufacture of new chemicals. According to the notice, EPA received the fullerene PMNs on November 5, 2008, and the projected end date is February 2, 2009.  Comments on the PMNs are due January 12, 2009.

 

The notice includes the following information:

Case No.

Use

Chemical

P-09-0054

(S) (1) Compound for use in organic electronic devices.  (2) Compound used to improve the mechanical properties of rubbers, plastics, and lubricants.  (3) Compound for use as an additive to increase the conductivity of materials.

(S) [5,6]fullerene-C60-ih

P-09-0055

(S) (1) Compound for use in organic electronic devices. (2) Compound used to improve the mechanical properties of rubbers, plastics, and lubricants. (3) Compound for use as an additive to increase the conductivity of materials.

(S) [5,6]fullerene-C70-d5h(6)

P-09-0056

(S) (1) Compound for use in organic electronic devices. (2) Compound used to improve the mechanical properties of rubbers, plastics, and lubricants. (3) Compound for use as an additive to increase the conductivity of materials.

(S) [5,6]fullerene-C84-d2

P-09-0057

(S) (1) Compound for use in organic electronic devices. (2) Compound used to improve the mechanical properties of rubbers, plastics, and lubricants. (3) Compound for use as an additive to increase the conductivity of materials.

(S) [5,6]fullerene-C84-d2d

 

EPA Issues Consent Order for Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) recently posted two blog items regarding a consent order negotiated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The October 9, 2008, item states that EPA intends to issue a sanitized version of a consent order negotiated with a producer of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). According to EDF, the order was prompted by EPA’s review of a premanufacturing notification (PMN).

EDF obtained a redacted copy of the consent order, and provides the following summary of the requirements:

  • Conduct a 90-day inhalation toxicity test in rats;
  • Supply EPA with a one-gram sample of its MWCNTs and its Material Safety Data Sheet;
  • Submit certain characterization data within six months after commencing full manufacture;
  • Require its workers to wear protective gloves and clothing shown to be impermeable and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirators;
  • Use the substance only for a particular use, claimed confidential but generically identified as a “property modifier” in electronics and polymer composites; and
  • Provide the nanomaterial only to entities that agree to the same use restrictions and worker protection conditions.