The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has posted a report entitled Ability of biopersistent/biodurable manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) to induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) as a prediction of their long-term toxic effects.  The report describes “the expanding knowledge on the implications and biological significance of lysosomal and autophagy dysfunction and the subsequent assembly and activation of inflammasome NLRP3 induced by biodurable manufactured nanomaterials.”  According to the report, different types of biodurable nanomaterials are shown to cause LMP, affect autophagy, and cause NLRP3 inflammasome activation.  OECD intends the compilation of available information in the report to contribute to the development of test systems to predict the long-term toxicity and hence the safety of manufactured nanomaterials.  The report notes that “[k]nowledge derived from the cellular and molecular processes underlying nanomaterial-induced toxic effects will also establish the scientific foundations for the risk assessment of manufactured [n]anomaterials through alternative screening approaches to predict long-term effects.”